Colic simply refers to pain in the abdomen, and does not provide any specific details regarding what organ system is affected or what underlying condition is occurring.
Lack of coordination, or ataxia, results from damage to the brain or spinal cord causing erratic and unstable movements.
Eating dry or wilted red maple leaves is poisonous for horses, leading to life threatening toxicosis. Storms, high winds, and autumn all result in more leaves on the ground, and it is important to not allow a horse to graze in any place where red maple leaves may fall
Oak trees are common in North America, and their leaves and acorns are toxic to horses when ingested in large amounts.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, gums and whites of the eyes. Horses showing jaundice require prompt veterinary assessment, as causes range from not eating to liver dysfunction or excessive breakdown of red blood cells
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) toxicosis occurs when horses ingest large amounts of fescue grass contaminated with the fungus Acremonium coenophialum. Pregnant and breeding age mares are the most affected by this toxicosis.
Slaframine toxicosis occurs when horses ingest high levels of slaframine toxin. Slaframine is a fungal toxin produced by the Rhizoctonia leguminicola fungus, commonly found on the red clover plant, alfalfa, and legumes. Slaframine toxicosis is not life threatening.
Monensin poisoning occurs when horses ingest a toxic dose of monensin, an antibiotic commonly used as a feed additive to promote cattle and poultry growth. Monensin is highly toxic to horses and commonly fatal.
Yellow star thistle poisoning, also called nigropallidal encephalomalacia or “chewing disease”, occurs when a horse eats a toxic amount of the yellow star thistle plant. Yellow star thistle is an annual weed commonly found in western North America, the Mediterranean, Argentina, and Australia.
Botulism is poisoning due to botulinum toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In most equine cases, the toxin enters the body through spoiled food (generally hay or silage).
Cardiotoxic plant ingestion occurs when horses ingest plants containing cardiotoxins: toxins that damage the heart muscle. Cardiotoxic plants can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, excessive sweating, seizures, collapse, and sudden death.
Aflatoxins are a group of fungal toxins produced by *Aspergillus* fungi, which grows on a number of feed crops, such as corn, peanuts, and soybeans.
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid (PA) toxicosis occurs when horses ingest a toxic dose of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, a group of organic compounds produced by a wide variety of plants as a natural insecticide.
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient mineral that, in small doses, plays an essential role in a healthy diet in horses. Selenium poisoning is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when an excessive amount of selenium is ingested.
Blister beetle poisoning, or cantharidin toxicosis, occurs when horses ingest a toxic dose of cantharidin, a toxin produced by blister beetles. Blister beetles most commonly infest alfalfa hay, causing toxicosis in horses when they ingest the feed.
Alsike clover toxicosis is a potentially life-threatening condition caused in horses by the ingestion of the Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum). Ingestion of Trifolium hybridum can cause two syndromes: liver failure and dew poisoning (Photosensitivity)
Moldy sweet clover toxicosis is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the ingestion of moldy sweet clover plants. Moldy sweet clover plants produce the natural anticoagulant dicoumarol.
Day-blooming jessamine poisoning is a life-threatening condition caused by the ingestion of day blooming jessamine (Cestrum diurnum), a plant high in calcitriol. Ingestion of a toxic dose of C. diurnum causes a condition in horses called enzootic calcinosis, where soft tissues become hardened due to build up of calcium
Hemlock poisoning is a potentially life-threatening condition in horses caused by the ingestion of a toxic dose of the Conium maculatum plant, also known as hemlock or poison hemlock.
Black locust poisoning is a potentially life-threatening condition in horses, resulting from the ingestion of the seeds, leaves, or inner bark of the black locust tree. Symptoms of black locust toxicosis generally present within two hours of ingestion and include abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in feces, and dilated pupils.
Blue-green algae poisoning occurs when horses ingest a toxic dose of cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria, commonly referred to as blue-green algae, are a group of bacteria that live in aquatic ecosystems (e.g., ponds, lakes, and creeks).
Lantana poisoning is a condition that occurs when horses ingest large amounts of the lantana plant, also known as yellow or red sage.
Nightshade poisoning is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in horses caused by the ingestion of plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae spp.), including potatoes. Symptoms of nightshade poisoning include abdominal pain, diarrhea, incoordination, and seizures.
Heavy metal poisoning is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when horses ingest toxic levels of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, or mercury. Common symptoms include weight loss, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
Jimsonweed toxicosis is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in horses that occurs from ingestion of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). Jimsonweed plants contain a wide array of toxins that cause abdominal pain, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, reduced appetite, and collapse.
Nitrate or nitrite poisoning, also referred to as brown blood disease, is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in horses caused by excessive consumption of nitrate-containing forages, contaminated waters, and some kinds of fertilizers.
Fumonisin toxicosis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when horses ingest fumonisin, a fungal toxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides or F. proliferatum fungi which grow on sweet corn.
Ryegrass staggers occurs when horses ingest a toxic dose of ryegrass contaminated by fungal or bacterial toxins. Lolium, or ryegrass, is a type of grass found worldwide, commonly used in pastures, lawns, and for soil erosion control.
Cyanide toxicosis, also known as sorghum poisoning, is an uncommon condition that occurs when horses ingest toxic levels of plants that contain cyanogenic glycosides. The most common cause of cyanide toxicosis in horses is ingestion of sorghum plants.
Oxalate toxicosis occurs when horses ingest a toxic dose of oxalates, which are naturally occurring acid compounds that can be found in a number of plant species. Once ingested, the oxalate acids bind to calcium in food sources, preventing absorption of calcium by the body.