West Nile Virus is acquired by mosquitos from infected birds and transmitted to mammals, including horses, when they bite them.
Equine encephalitis viruses are a group of severe, life-threatening infections affecting the brain.
Failure of passive transfer (FPT) is the inadequate intake of colostrum (from the mother’s milk) within 24 hours of birth, leading to inadequate provision of antibodies to the foal.
Strangles is a bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus equi equi, a highly contagious bacteria that spreads through contaminated nasal discharge. Horses with strangles characteristically develop swollen lymph nodes that drain pus, nasal discharge, and fever.
Umbilicus infection (omphalophlebitis), or navel ill in foals is a condition where the stump of the umbilical cord becomes infected shortly after birth. Left untreated, the condition can quickly become life-threatening, with foals deteriorating rapidly.
Sweet Itch (aka insect bite hypersensitivity/Queensland itch) is a seasonal skin condition affecting some horses who are allergic to biting midge saliva. Biting midges are especially active in the warmer months.
Rabies is a viral disease affecting the brain that is fatal once symptoms are recognizable. Horses with rabies often present with severe behavior changes such as self-mutilation, aggression, hyperexcitability, uncoordinated gait, and seizures.
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4), also referred to as rhinopneumonitis (or “Rhino”), are the most common and widespread forms of herpesvirus to affect horses.
Botulism is poisoning due to botulinum toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In most equine cases, the toxin enters the body through spoiled food (generally hay or silage).
Dental disease is a common condition in horses, and includes gingivitis, periodontal disease, tooth decay, tooth fractures, and loose or missing teeth. Senior horses are particularly predisposed to developing dental disease.
Retained deciduous (or baby) teeth occur when the adult teeth do not push the overlying baby teeth out of the gums as they grow. Normally, the baby teeth become thin, forming a cap on the underlying permanent tooth, and fall off between 2.5 - 4.5 years of age.
Equine influenza is a highly contagious viral disease that can spread quickly among young, at-risk, and unvaccinated horses. Symptoms of equine influenza include fever, nasal discharge, lethargy, enlarged lymph nodes, and cough.
Tooth root abscesses are infections occurring at the base of the tooth, known as the root in horses. Infections in this area often affect the surrounding bone, ligaments, and in the case of upper teeth, the sinuses can become infected.
Tetanus is an uncommon, life-threatening disease in horses caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetanus causes contraction of muscles, resulting in symptoms such as mild colic, a stiff/spastic gait, lameness, rigid body and limbs, and contraction of muscles in the face.