Lyme disease is caused by the tick-borne bacteria *Borrelia burgdorferi*. Horses become infected with the bacteria when an infected tick feeds on them.
Ticks are small parasitic arachnids and carry a number of different diseases that can transmit to mammalian hosts. The outdoor lifestyle of horses makes them susceptible to tick infestation,
Piroplasmosis is a tick-borne parasitic disease of horses. Most infected horses do not develop symptoms of piroplasmosis.
Tick paralysis results when a tick’s saliva delivers a paralytic toxin into the bloodstream of its host. Equine tick paralysis is rare, as horses seem to be resistant to most tick toxins.
Anaplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease that affects horses caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa.
Hair loss (also known as alopecia) in horses occurs for three main reasons: because the hair has been broken or rubbed off; the immune system is not working properly and an infection has taken root; or the immune system targets the hair as a foreign invader.
Itching (also referred to as pruritus) in horses is a common symptom that may indicate insect bites, skin infection, or allergic reactions. An itchy horse will often rub against other surfaces, including stalls, trees, fences, or buildings, which may lead to loss of hair and more irritated skin.