Hip dysplasia occurs when the hip joint develops in an abnormally loose manner, creating chronic instability in the hip joint.
Elbow dysplasia (ED) describes a group of developmental conditions which results in the bones of the elbow joint not fitting together perfectly.
Osteochonditis Dissecans (OCD) is a developmental condition where a flap of cartilage breaks off from the end of the bone, and lodges in the joint, triggering inflammation and pain. Osteochondrosis (OC) describes the abnormal development of cartilage which leads to OCD.
Arthritis is a general term referring to damage and inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs is a chronic, progressive form of this disease resulting in pain and reduced mobility.
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is a disease that causes degeneration of the femoral head spontaneously. It is also known as avascular or aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.
Hypertrophic Osteopathy is a bone disease where new bone information appears in the limbs of a young growing dog. Although the exact mechanisms of the inflammation is poorly understood, it is thought to be an immune-mediated disorder.
Muscle tremors in dogs are involuntary, repetitive, rhythmic muscle movements.
Muscle atrophy describes the thinning or wasting of muscles. It is a common symptom in dogs, seen as part of many conditions.
Hypothyroidism is a common clinical condition in dogs resulting from reduced production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid glands.
Exercise intolerance is a decreased ability to endure sustained exercise.
Collapse in dogs is generally defined as when a dog falls and cannot get back up.
Lethargy is a lack of energy or enthusiasm, which most often presents in dogs as reduced activity levels and disinterest in toys, food, or treats.
Joint pain refers to soreness of the spine and/or limbs and is a common symptom, especially in older dogs.
Joint swelling is caused by the buildup of fluid or excessive bone growth within a joint.
Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is the most common cause of hind limb lameness in dogs, and occurs due to traumatic injury or progressive degeneration of the ligament.
Unexplained weight gain is specifically characterized by the occurrence of weight gain in spite of a reduction in calories and appetite.
Limited mobility in dogs is difficulty or reluctance to perform the usual activities of daily living. A dog who has trouble going up or down stairs, has difficulty getting in and out of the car, is reluctant to jump up or down from furniture or up onto people, or is stiff getting up after sleeping has limited mobility
Weakness is a symptom where dogs move slowly, struggle to rise from rest, are reluctant to exercise, and sometimes have muscle shaking.
Facial nerve paralysis describes the inability of a dog to move the muscles in its face because of a dysfunction in the nerves. This appears as ‘droopiness’ or sagging of the facial muscles, lips, ears, and eyelids.
Ataxia describes abnormal movement control of the limbs and body. Dogs with ataxia present with poor coordination while walking, loss of balance, and often appear dizzy.
Polymyositis is an inflammatory disorder in dogs affecting two or more muscles in the body. The immune system attacks healthy muscles, causing muscle tissue to be replaced with scar tissue, leading to weakness.
Dropped jaw (trigeminal neuropathy) is a disorder of the cranial nerve that controls the movement and sensitivity of the jaw in dogs. The characteristic symptom is the inability to close the mouth.
Craniomandibular Osteopathy (CMO) describes the growth of areas of new bone around the head and jaws. CMO is a rare condition of no known origin seen in young, growing dogs, usually between 3-7 months old.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease which interrupts the way nerves communicate with striated muscles. Striated muscles control voluntary movement, such as those used to walk or change facial expression.
A saddle thrombus is when a large blood clot becomes lodged in the aorta, obstructing blood flow to the hind limbs in dogs. The aorta is a large artery which carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body
Osteosarcoma is the formation of a malignant tumor in the bones. It is a highly metastatic cancer with a median survival rate of 2-4 months without treatment and 8-12 months with treatment. This is the most common type of bone cancer in dogs and is most prominent in large breeds and older pets.
Polyradiculoneuritis (PRN), also known as coonhound paralysis, is a condition in dogs where the immune system attacks the nervous system resulting in inflammation of nerves, primarily in the legs. The cause of most forms of PRN is unknown, but coonhound paralysis is linked to a reaction to raccoon saliva.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder affecting the brain characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and spontaneous or emotion-triggered collapse (cataplexy). This is an uncommon condition in dogs, and can be caused by a genetic predisposition or in rare cases, a brain disorder or nerve disease.
Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM) is a condition in dogs where the immune system attacks the chewing muscles. Myositis is the term for inflammation of muscle tissue. The chewing muscles are on the top and sides of the head and are responsible for opening the mouth and chewing.
Atlantoaxial instability (AAI) in dogs affects the first two neck bones in the spine: the atlas (vertebra C1) and axis (vertebra C2), which give the head and neck stability. Changes to the bone(s) or ligaments in these joints can cause instability, resulting in dislocation and spinal cord compression.