A closer look: Saddle Thrombus (Aortic Thrombosis) in Dogs
The aorta is the major artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The area above the hind legs where the aorta branches to supply blood to both appendages is referred to as the “saddle.” When a blood clot gets caught in this junction, it can restrict blood flow to the hind legs, resulting in a saddle thrombus.
A slow-forming clot or chronic saddle thrombus often shows no symptoms at first. Over time, there is a gradual loss of rear leg function. Thrombi that form quickly show sudden symptoms, with rapid development of rear limb dysfunction. In these cases, the condition is both stressful and painful.
Other symptoms vary, as a saddle clot may develop alongside other concurrent conditions.
Aortic thrombosis is rare, but painful and often fatal. It is more common in older dogs, as they have the highest prevalence of underlying conditions that lead to thrombosis. Discovery of the clot may be an indicator of another serious condition. Since the clot cuts off blood supply to the hind limbs and is extremely painful, emergency medical attention is required.
Blood clots form in response to infections, injuries, diseases, or as a result of irregular blood flow. Conditions associated with a saddle thrombus include:
Protein loss disorders: Protein levels are depleted due to excessive losses in the urine or digestive tract.
Heart disease/circulatory disturbances
Rare complication of some metabolic/endocrine diseases
In addition to gastric dilatation and volvulus and some types of cancer.
In some cases, there is no identifiable underlying cause for the thrombus.
As the blood in the aorta clots, blood is unable to reach the hind legs properly. Without blood flow, the tissues are unable to receive oxygen.
Testing and diagnosis
Symptoms are usually enough to diagnose aortic thrombosis, and given the severity of the condition euthanasia is commonly chosen over treatment.
If moving forward with treatment, a full workup is required to discern why the thrombosis developed. Diagnostics include:
- Physical examination
- Diagnostic imaging, including X-rays and ultrasound
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Bloodwork, specifically including clotting profiles.
Steps to Recovery
Treatment includes medication to break up the blood clot, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulants. Surgical removal of the clot may also be possible with referral to a specialist. Further treatment targeted at the underlying cause of the clot is essential, otherwise there is the potential for recurrence.
It is important to monitor recovery via ultrasound to observe progress in the clot’s disruption, and to catch any complications in restoring proper blood flow. During treatment, pain medications and sedatives are often given to improve patient comfort.
Saddle thrombus has a very poor prognosis. Even with treatment, the life expectancy once a pet develops a saddle thrombus is measured in months. Pets with saddle thrombi that develop slowly over time may live longer, although treatment is still unlikely to be successful.
Euthanasia is a common choice for animals which develop this kind of blood clot.
Appropriate management of chronic conditions which can lead to thrombosis is the most effective way to prevent a clot from developing. Keeping up with regular checkups and vaccinations is the best way to catch underlying conditions early, especially as dogs age. Blood clots are not contagious.
Is Saddle Thrombus (Aortic Thrombosis) in Dogs common?
Aortic thrombosis is very rare in dogs.