Decreased Thirst (Hypodipsia and Adipsia) in Dogs

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Key takeaways

Decreased thirst is characterized by a change in a dog’s normal intake of water.

  • It is a common symptom that often arises alongside a wide variety of conditions
  • Physiological causes are generally related to changes in thirst signals or changes in kidney function
  • Other causes may be related to weakness, lethargy, limited mobility, and nausea
  • Decreased thirst varies in severity, depending on the amount of water intake and any concurrent conditions
  • Dogs showing an unexpected and persistent change in thirst need veterinary attention
  • Dogs who have not had any water for more than 24 hours require emergency care
  • Diagnostics include physical examination, bloodwork, diagnostic imaging, and urinalysis
  • Treatment targets the underlying condition and may be accompanied by supportive fluid therapy to combat dehydration
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A closer look: Decreased Thirst (Hypodipsia and Adipsia) in Dogs


A healthy dog needs to drink 20-40 mL of water per 1lb of body weight per day, although this varies significantly depending on age, breed, reproductive status, stress, exercise habits, diet, environment, and if medications are in use.

Decreased thirst may present as reduced thirst (hypodipsia) or a complete absence of thirst (adipsia). A complete absence of thirst is more severe, and can rapidly lead to dehydration.

Changes in thirst usually present alongside other symptoms, since changes are typically associated with underlying health problems. In rare cases, decreased thirst may be the only symptom a dog shows.

Emergency care is warranted for any dog that refuses to drink for more than 24 hours.

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Possible causes


Any underlying health condition can lead to decreased thirst if an affected dog is too weak or nauseated to drink, such as in cases of liver failure or kidney disease.

Some cases are determined to be primary hypodipsia, meaning the change in thirst is not related to a specific disease. Primary hypodipsia is most commonly identified in Schnauzers.

Risk factors


Decreased thirst is common, and can lead to dehydration if reduced water intake continues.

Severity is variable, depending on the underlying condition and amount of water intake that is occurring despite changes in thirst. A complete absence of water increases risk, especially for young, old, and chronically ill individuals. Dogs benefit from prompt veterinary attention, or immediate intervention if decreased thirst presents alongside other symptoms.

Testing and diagnosis


Diagnostics include:

  • A physical examination
  • Bloodwork
  • Urinalysis
  • Diagnostic imaging

Treatment varies depending on the underlying cause. If a dog is severely dehydrated, treatment is accompanied by symptomatic therapy. This focuses on fluid replacement through IV or subcutaneously administered fluids.

Similar symptoms


Decreased thirst is distinct from a dog not drinking. Dogs may ‘not drink’ for reasons not determined by their level of thirst. Examples of changes in drinking behavior include:

  • Refusal to drink from a contaminated water source
  • Refusal to drink from an unfamiliar water source
  • Learned behavior in dogs whose owners encourage them to drink more, whether or not it is medically necessary

In addition, sometimes pet parents perceive their dogs are not drinking enough even though they are. Veterinary evaluation can help determine individual intake recommendations if pet parents are unsure of their dog’s needs.

Associated symptoms


References


Jennifer Grota, DVM - Writing for PetMD
Dr. Debra Primovic, DVM - Writing for PetPlace
J Van Heerden, J Geel, D J Moore - Writing for Journal of South African Veterinary Association
Vanessa McClure, Eran Dvir - Writing for Journal of South African Veterinary Association
No Author - Writing for Petplan
Hannah Hollinger - Writing for Wag!
No Author - Writing for Veterinary Emergency Group

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