A closer look: Blood in Urine (Hematuria/Hemoglobinuria/Myoglobinuria) In Dogs
Blood in the urine is uncommon in dogs, but indicates potentially serious diseases including tumors, bleeding disorders, infections, and traumatic injury. Dogs with red, pink, or brown-tinged urine require prompt veterinary care.
Urine appears bloody as a result of the presence of either whole red blood cells in the urine or compounds from the breakdown of blood cells or muscle tissue.
Red pigment in urine falls into three general categories: hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Each of these are associated with different underlying conditions.
Hematuria is a result of bleeding into the urinary tract.
Hemoglobinuria usually occurs when. red blood cells are destroyed, and free hemoglobin is excreted into the urine through the kidneys.
Myoglobinuria occurs when myoglobin is released into the bloodstream after muscle damage and is similarly filtered out by the kidneys.
- Extreme exertion or extreme body temperature
- Muscle infection
- Muscle damage from toxins or traumatic injury
- Genetic diseases that affect muscle
Abnormal bleeding disorders (coagulopathies) may also lead to blood in urine.
In general, the color of bloody urine does not indicate the severity of the underlying condition. Urine with hemoglobinuria is more likely to be pink to red-brown compared to hematuria, which is typically a brighter red.
In some cases, bloody urine is an emergency. Dogs showing the following symptoms, along with bloody urine, require immediate emergency veterinary care.
Testing and diagnosis
The first step in diagnosing bloody urine is to identify which of the three categories the blood traces in the urine point to.. Once the source of the red color is categorized, further diagnostics are required to determine what the underlying condition is.
These include, but are not limited to:
- Physical exam
- Routine blood tests
- Urine protein/creatinine ratio evaluation Blood clotting profiles
- Diagnostic imaging like x-rays and ultrasound
- Urine culture
- Genetic testing
Treatment for hematuria, hemoglobinuria, or myoglobinuria depends on the underlying condition identified.
Bloody urine, whether due to whole blood or hemoglobin, is easily identified by owners. In some cases, dark brown or chocolate-colored urine can be mistaken for bloody urine. This usually results from genetic conditions or toxicities that lead to the presence of methemoglobin in the urine. Dark urine with no traces of blood may also be healthy and not indicative of a problem at all.
Dogs exhibiting any of these symptoms require prompt veterinary care.
Some dogs with bloody urine show no other symptoms.