Heart disease in horses is a very serious condition. The heart is a vital organ of the body and it pumps oxygenated blood and nutrients throughout the body. Early diagnosis and treatment can manage the symptoms and delay or slow down the progression of the condition, however, left untreated it can be fatal.
Carpitis is inflammation of the soft connective tissues on the surface of the bones of the carpus of a horse. The horse carpus is the equivalent of the human knee joint. This inflammation can involve the fibrous joint capsule, synovial membrane, and associated ligaments and bones of the carpus.
Cancer is a group of diseases that causes changes in normal cell growth where cells begin to multiply chaotically. This multiplication of cells can form masses which can impede the normal function of the body.
Aspiration pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by inhalation of a foreign substance. It is more common in foals, but can be seen in horses of any age.
Joint swelling is a common symptom in horses and has a variety of causes.
Limited mobility (LM) in horses is defined as a reduction in agility and/or movement, and is a condition that mainly affects senior and geriatric horses (over 18 years of age).
Equine Cushing’s disease, or pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), is a common hormone disorder affecting the control of ACTH levels within the body.
Colic simply refers to pain in the abdomen, and does not provide any specific details regarding what organ system is affected or what underlying condition is occurring.
Lack of coordination, or ataxia, results from damage to the brain or spinal cord causing erratic and unstable movements.
Heaves, or Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), is a severe form of equine asthma. It is an inflammatory reaction in the lower respiratory tract to inhaled dust particles, endotoxins, or mold spores typically found in hay and straw.
Exercise intolerance is the decreased ability to tolerate strenuous exercise. Exercise intolerance is one of the first signs of exhaustion
Thrush is a common bacterial infection of horse hoof tissue caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, gums and whites of the eyes. Horses showing jaundice require prompt veterinary assessment, as causes range from not eating to liver dysfunction or excessive breakdown of red blood cells
Coughing, the act of suddenly expelling air from the lungs, is a common symptom in horses. It can be caused by an array of underlying conditions, such as equine asthma and bacterial or viral infections
Equine encephalitis viruses are a group of severe, life-threatening infections affecting the brain.
Nasal discharge is an excretion of fluids from one or both nostrils. It varies in intensity and severity in horses, from clear to discolored and from innocuous to life threatening
Dyspnea is difficulty breathing. In horses, it is characterized by an increased effort to breathe, usually evident in the character, rate, and rhythm of respiration.
Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is an inflammatory condition that affects a horse's lower respiratory tract.
Failure of passive transfer (FPT) is the inadequate intake of colostrum (from the mother’s milk) within 24 hours of birth, leading to inadequate provision of antibodies to the foal.
Gastric dilation is the stretching of the stomach due to a buildup of pressure which does not move properly through the GI tract. Left untreated, gastric dilation leads quickly to gastric rupture, where the stomach tears open.
Joint infections are infections found in the joints of horses which cause pain, inflammation, fever, and lameness. Joint infections are always an emergency and require immediate medical assistance.
Right dorsal colitis (RDC) is an ulceration of part of the large intestine, the right dorsal colon, as a side effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although RDC is usually connected to high doses or prolonged ingestion of these drugs, some cases involve normal usage in inherently sensitive horses.
Anterior enteritis (AE), also known as proximal enteritis, is inflammation of the first two parts of the small intestine - the duodenum and the jejunum. The cause of AE in horses is suspected to be clostridial infection, although currently causes are not completely understood.
Laminitis refers to inflammation of the lamellae, the support structure that holds the coffin bone in place within the hoof capsule. The lamellae are extremely sensitive, making laminitis a very painful condition.
Gastrointestinal impactions are compact masses of feed or other material that get stuck in specific locations along the digestive tract of horses. Causes include dehydration, large meals, insufficient chewing, foreign material, or disruption to intestinal function.
Intestinal displacement is a condition in which the free-floating intestinal tract becomes trapped behind, among, or in other structures in the abdomen. Volvulus (torsion) is a condition in which parts of the gastrointestinal tract twist around themselves, disrupting blood flow.
Sepsis or septicemia is an infection of the blood caused by bacteria or bacterial toxins (endotoxins). Foals become infected with harmful bacteria *in utero* or after birth from environmental bacteria.
Anorexia in horses is a noticeable decrease in appetite. Appetite in horses fluctuates depending on many factors, and anorexia refers to a significant decrease in feed intake, to the point where caloric needs are not being met.
Abortion is the loss of a fetus before the expected due date, resulting in delivery of a non-viable foal. There are many causes of abortion in horses, including infectious causes such as equine herpesvirus, and non-infectious causes such as twinning.
Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) occurs when insulin levels are consistently high, leading to dysfunction of the systems that regulate body fat and blood sugar. EMS is caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors, such as high-sugar diets and obesity, although it is unclear why some horses develop this condition and others do not.