A closer look: Nasal Discharge in Horses
The type of discharge varies depending on the underlying condition.
- White or watery: usually an environmental cause or an allergy if there are no other symptoms
- Yellow: indicates a viral or bacterial infection like influenza
- Bright red and bloody: must be treated as an emergency as it could be a fungal infection of the guttural pouches
- Rust colored and bloody: indicates that the blood is not fresh, which could be a sign of hematoma
- Creamlike: usually indicates pus due to a bacterial infection of the guttural pouches. This may be a consequence of strangles.
- Foamy: often accompanied with discharge of food from the nostrils, this is a sign of choking and is an emergency
The presence of bilateral (both nostrils) or unilateral (one nostril) discharge also helps indicate location of the underlying cause in the body.
- Bilateral usually indicates a problem with the lower airway such as asthma, strangles, or pneumonia.
- Unilateral usually indicates a condition related to the upper airway, head, and sinuses. Tooth abscesses and ethmoid hematoma present with unilateral discharge.
The odor coming from the discharge is another important indicator. Foul-smelling discharge is often a sign of infection
Many cases of nasal discharge in horses are not alarming. The color and consistency of the discharge indicate various conditions, from a common cold to a lethal infection. If the discharge presents as a bloody, bright red flow, it is a sign of emergency.
If nasal discharge is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, changes in appetite, or changes in other bodily functions, prompt veterinary attention is advised.
Some conditions associated with nasal discharge are contagious, so quarantine is recommended for affected horses when the symptom first appears.
As with nasal discharge in all mammals, the possible causes are widely varied in severity and origin. The most common causes are non-infectious. A runny nose may be caused by irritation due to inhaled dust or hay irritating the sinuses.
Guttural pouch mycosis is a fungal infection that can damage the large arteries bringing blood to the head. This is a most serious case and can lead to bleeding out in a matter of minutes.
Testing and diagnosis
Aside from the characteristics of the discharge and other possible associated symptoms, these tests may help with diagnosis of underlying cause:
- Nasal swab analysis under the microscope
- Skull X-rays
- Ultrasound of the lungs
- Blood tests
- Endoscopic visualization of the upper airways
- Bronchoalveolar lavage to identify cells present in the airways
- Physical examination
Treatment depends on the underlying condition.
Nasal discharge is unique and self-evident. It is not likely to be confused with any other symptoms. Mucous/watery nasal discharge may be distinguished from nosebleeds originating from the circulatory system.