The severity of reverse sneezing varies depending on the exposure to the irritant. It may be chronic or acute, or frequent or rare. In most cases, it is not a cause for concern.
Reverse sneezing is caused by any irritant to the upper airway. Common causes include:
Some dogs have occasional reverse sneezing episodes throughout their lives, others develop them as they grow older. Smaller dogs and flat-faced (brachycephalic) dogs are more prone to reverse sneezing. If the reverse sneezing becomes chronic, veterinary attention is necessary to identify the underlying cause.
If reverse sneezing is severe enough to warrant veterinary investigation, radiographic imagery or rhinoscopy may be used to determine what the irritant is.
Treatment is targeted at the cause. For example, if mites are discovered, then treatment with anti-parasitic medication may be helpful. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a foreign body.
Reverse sneezing is not generally associated with other symptoms, but follows similar trends as sneezing.