A closer look: Difficulty Walking (Ataxia) in Cats
Ataxia is differentiated into three types based on the part of the body the underlying condition is affecting:
- Cerebellar: affecting the cerebellum in the brain
- Vestibular: affecting the inner ear or brainstem
- Proprioceptive (sensory): affecting the spinal cord
Difficulty walking can be as mild as stumbling occasionally, or can deeply affect a cat's ability to function in daily life. Ataxia is also categorized as either acute or chronic. Acute ataxia has a sudden onset, and is often related to an inciting event, such as trauma, infection, or toxicosis.
Chronic ataxia builds in severity gradually over time, and is typically related to other chronic diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord or inner ear. Causes of chronic ataxia include cerebellar hypoplasia, tumors, or degenerative diseases.
Cats that suddenly develop ataxia require immediate veterinary care, as sudden ataxia may be linked to life-threatening conditions. Cats with chronic ataxia require frequent follow-up with a veterinarian to monitor for any changes that indicate disease progression.
Ataxia is associated with many types of disease.
Ataxia is quite rare in cats. It has a wide range of possible causes, with a wide range of prognoses, ranging from favorable to poor. If the cause is an infection, which can be treated quickly, ataxia may be resolved in a few days. If the ataxia is caused by a developmental disorder, a cat will live with ataxia for their whole life. In certain cases, such as toxicoses, the underlying cause may be life-threatening.
Testing and diagnosis
Diagnosis begins with a physical examination to narrow down if the ataxia is cerebellar, vestibular, or sensory in origin. Tests include:
- Advanced imaging
- Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (spinal tap)
- Bacterial or fungal culture
Treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis and varies widely. If the underlying condition is incurable, as with cerebellar hypoplasia, ataxia is managed by ensuring a safe environment and making lifestyle accommodations where possible.
Ataxia may be mistaken for limping, lameness, or muscular weakness. With these symptoms, the gait abnormality follows a consistent, repeatable pattern. With ataxia, the gait abnormality appears random, and cats seem uncoordinated or wobbly.