A closer look: Food Allergies in Cats
The term “allergies” refers to an inappropriate immune system response to a stimulus that is not harmful. The offending stimulus is referred to as an “allergen.”
Like other mammals, cats can have allergic reactions to many types of allergens, including foods. In cases of food allergies, the allergen is almost always a protein source in the diet.
Allergies are complex and difficult to diagnose. In general, all other possible causes of symptoms have to be ruled out. In cases of food allergies, food elimination diet trials are performed to identify which foods can be tolerated and which contain allergens specific to the individual cat. Food elimination trials take months and extensive veterinary follow-up monitoring to be successful.
Connect with a vet to get more information
Food allergies are uncommon in cats, as the majority of allergies in cats are triggered by exposure to flea saliva, or inhaled allergens including mold and pollen. Although food allergies are not an emergency, prompt veterinary care is important to allow treatment of symptoms. Treating food allergies requires extensive testing and trial and error to successfully identify the allergen. Once identified, removing the allergen reduces symptoms significantly.
Cats may also develop skin or ear infections associated with food allergies.
As with all cases of allergies, the root cause is unknown, but genetic predisposition is suggested. Food allergies are caused by the immune system recognizing a specific allergen in the pet’s diet, and targeting it as if it were a danger to the body. The most common food allergens in cats include:
- Meat proteins such as beef, pork, or chicken
- Grain products such as wheat, barley, or corn
Testing and diagnosis
Diagnosing a food allergy begins with a physical examination. Skin scrapings or biopsies may be used to rule out other conditions such as sarcoptic mange or bacterial infections. Once food allergies are suspected, a food elimination trial is conducted to determine the cause of the allergic reaction.
A novel diet plan requires eliminating any protein and carbohydrate sources from the cat’s diet that the cat had previously eaten. Under the guidance of the vet, the protein is replaced with a less common source or a hydrolyzed protein diet.
**It is important to note that a grocery store ‘hypoallergenic food’ is not regulated as stringent as a veterinary prescription diet, so there may be contamination in the food. **In addition, for the diet to be effective, the cat must be monitored in all foods it consumes. This includes table scraps, treats, and anything they may consume while outdoors. To effectively determine the cause, there has to be no other food input to contaminate the reaction.
After a period of 8-10 weeks, if a food allergy is present, the symptoms disappear. Once confirmed, other sources of food are slowly reintroduced one at a time. If the allergy symptoms return, generally within 1-2 weeks after reintroduction, that re-added source is determined to be an allergen. This process can be repeated for all potential allergens. Once the allergens are identified, they are removed from the diet and the symptoms will cease.
Steps to Recovery
Allergies are a lifelong condition. Symptoms continue as long as the allergen is still in the cat’s diet. Once the sources of the allergic reaction are removed, the symptoms should disappear. If the cat still shows consistent itching, it is possible they have atopic dermatitis or FAD in addition to the food allergy. These symptoms need further investigation and treatment.
Allergies are not contagious, nor can they be prevented. Once a food allergy is confirmed through diet elimination, symptoms can be prevented by removing the known allergens from the diet.
Are Food Allergies in Cats common?
Food allergies are uncommon in cats.
- Remove confirmed allergens from diet